Logic 2: formal and informal systems, applied ideas

Formal systems, studied by logicians, mathematicians, philosophers and others, are (usually) characterised by a specified and restricted set of symbols, rules for making statements from those symbols, plus rules for generating new statements. So from these basic rules and instructions, statements can be generated that are regarded as products of the system; they are called theorems.

Formal Logic

In our professional lives, we are surrounded by and endlessly use and manipulate information and systems that are based on formal logic. The worlds we occupy are structured by theories, models and systems that are more or less logically coherent. If our aim is to make the world a better place, then starting with an understanding of logic beyond the simple analysis of arguments is a necessity.

Connections and thinking: the future

Werner Herzog’s recent documentary film ‘Lo and Behold’ is a thoughtful meditation and exploration of the internet, digital connectivity, artificial intelligence, and some of the ethical and social issues that these technologies raise for us. It covers a range of thoughts and ideas that tax me too: the future of work, education and ideas.

The meaning of ‘life’ and the meaning of life

I recently had a discussion with a friend about whether there could be life on Venus. I contended, rather dogmatically, that there could not, based on our current theories about how biological life is understood and the limits that there might be on the biochemical complexity possible in the universe. My friend replied that we do not know what forms that life could take in the rest of the universe and I could not possibly make such a claim. It occurred to me later that we were both right, but also that each of us had weaknesses in what we were saying.